Drop-out in Brazil Linked to Lack of Technology

Its been a long time since the last post – extreme workloads and travel has meant that the blog has taken a back seat. However, its back now – and this time with a much wider range of technologies and topics. In future articles I’ll be sharing my thoughts on how the surge in education technology innovation in developed countries is likely to impact on developing countries. More on that in later articles, but first a report from Brazil –

In a new report – ‘What Young People Think of Schools in Low Income Areas‘ young people complain that subjects don’t make sense, teachers are unprepared, and the curriculum does not include the use of technology.

More than 80% of the young people surveyed reported poor use of the internet to help them study – not surprising given than  less than 50% of the schools in the study had internet access. The biggest challenges are in High Schools where about 1.7 million young people between 15 and 17 years are abandoning schooling.

Angela Danemann, Director of Fundação Victor Civita explains “students will go away because they don’t see the sense in being there. Schools do not respond to their aspirations, and do not use the media with which they are familiar.” Students have to spend a lot of time copying from books.

The study also points to another problem: the lack of relevant content. Most students claim that only Portuguese and mathematics are relevant.

However, there are some schools in Brazil who are fully embracing technology, particularly in the private sector – for example Colegio Dante Alighieri caught media attention recently for their use of Scratch.

NAVENAVE in Rio is a bright, modern learning environment, deeply enriched with technology – but NAVE receives its funding through the CSR arm of a major Telco so it doesn’t represent a widely replicable solution for public schooling in Brazil.

Reforms to the entire way in which public schooling is done in Brazil needs to happen quickly. First steps should focus on the accelerated introduction of technology into schools so that children can at least get access to relevant content. Reforms to education management, import tariffs on equipment, teaching, physical spaces and funding are long overdue.

Loja

O Ensinio A Velocidade Do Pensamento, and the accompanying workshops with Planeta Educacao, were written specifically to enable transformation of Brazilian public schooling. For more information contact mike@eductechassociates.net

New Zealand and China – new approaches to school buildings

Second of two guest blogs by Dr Paul Kelley

In my last blog I considered the ambitious plans of New Zealand to use Ultra-Fast Broadband to bring better education to all its citizens.  Part of New Zealand’s Inquiry into the implementation of 21stCentury learning is linked to consideration of school buildings.

Both New Zealand and China are dedicated to improving education, and their school buildings. In New Zealand, the Chair of the Education and Science Select Committee, Nikki Kaye, makes clear the opportunities for inspirational buildings within the one billion dollar budget for new and refurbished school buildings.  In China, the transformation of cities is astounding – and not just in Beijing and Shanghai. In Hebei Province, Baoding and Shijiazhuang have been transformed to very modern cities with populations of more than 10 million.

Both countries could do with considering the failures and occasional success of English education.  Changes in the education system are reflected in educational buildings- or a lack of change in the case of England.  This is most apparent in the English education system where hundreds of millions of pounds were spent on buildings, most of which, in the end, were simply newer versions of old buildings.  This trend is continuing, and degrading the quality of school environments by failing to future-proof new buildings.

The ambition to implement school designs better suited to the 21st Century was not achieved in England, though the school building in the photograph above this blog shows one of the few that reflected the ambitions of Mukund Patel, the visionary leader of the Department for Education’s  Schools for the Future programme.  This failure to achieve systemic change was not the fault of architects. For example,  Alex de Rijke of dRMM created one visionary design, the Dura– the model for the school above- re- built another (Kingsdale School here), and has inspiring ideas about education buildings.  Kingsdale has the most wonderful ETFE roof, and being in this interior area is an inspiration on its own.

Here dRMM’s Clapham Manor School shows how a stunning modern school can complement a much older building- the Odd Fellows Hall.  Indeed, I would suggest that the school will, in the end, become the more important of the two.  It has the visionary quality that characterizes dRMM as a practice, and the quality of finish that is breathtaking.

New Zealand is fortunate in having a clear link between education and science in its political structure, as new science will help solve some problems in schools.  There is much that is wrong with school buildings- they are usually too small, have poor acoustics, bad air quality, and low light levels –  yet there are solutions based on good science and engineering to resolve these issues.  Having education linked to science may help New Zealand find good solutions.

It would be fitting for New Zealand, with one of the world’s best environments, could create world-leading school designs that enhance learning for students, and the digital network for the country as a whole.   Such an achievement would help the country become a leading example of good educational practice through embracing the future- rather than rebuilding the past.

III Forum Microsoft Educacion, Madrid, May 17th

Thanks to all those who came to my workshop and keynote speech at the III Forum Microsoft Educacion, Madrid (#IIIForumEdu). This was a really well organised and well attended event – and thanks to my Microsoft colleagues, especially Juan Ramon Alegret Crespi; Maria Zamorano Alberruche; Irene Ocaña del Rey; Lola Chacon Gutierrez; and Fernando Bocigas Palma.

Here’s a link to the OneNote file complete with on-the-fly annotations:

Schooling at the Speed of Thought keynote

What can we learn from South Korea?

Of all the places I’ve visited, I’ve not seen technology so deeply embedded into daily life anywhere as much as in South Korea. Boasting technology giants such as Samsung and LG, South Korea places a conspicuous high value on technology in practically all aspects of life.

Korea’s remarkable technology driven growth has also been accompanied by improvements in social equity. How? Investment in human capital – as evidenced by their PISA results in recent years.

South Korea is well known for their results in the OECD PISA survey

Korea rides high in PISA (pic c/o Wikipedia)

Unlike Finland, whose high ranking in PISA can be attributed to excellent public schooling, Korea’s investment in human capital is significantly influenced by private investment. Parents with school-age children spend close to 25 percent of their income on education and all parents spend a large portion of their income on supplementary educational materials. Private education cost 3.95% of GDP in 2006. According to colleagues in South Korea, students acquire about 30 percent of their formal learning through their schooling, and the rest through supplementary measures.  

So what motivates parents to spend such large amounts of money on private tutoring outside the state schooling system? The main driver is that education is viewed as being crucial for success. At three or four years old, Korean children begin the long and strenuous race to higher education where Science and Engineering dominate.

Examination time is a very serious times of the year and the whole pattern of society changes. Businesses often start at 10AM to accommodate parents who have helped their children study late into the night and on the evenings before exams. The entire schooling system is geared to college entrance, so the curriculum of most schools is structured around the content of the entrance examination.

The Korean government spends generously on education (4.5% GDP in 1986); children spend a lot of days in school (220 days in Korea vs 180 days in the US); and school children work very long hours too. While these factors help with test scores, Korea is remarkably inefficient at a PISA criterion known as “study effectiveness”. South Korea ranks only 24th out of 30 developed nations in this measure. Top in study effectiveness is Finland, where time in school and hours spent studying is significantly less than Korea.

While many if not most other countries look on Korean performance on international tests like PISA with envy, in Korea itself there appears to be an intense pressure to do better, and in this highly technocratic country, its little surprise that technology is seen to be an important component.  

Technology Developments

Korea has been ‘computerizing’ schools for the last 15 years or so, and was the first country in the world to provide high-speed internet access to every primary, junior, and high school. ICT is also an increasing focus in the Korean Government’s education strategy, and in recognition of their progress, Korea won 1st prize from UNESCO for ICT in Education in 2007. So you’d be forgiven for thinking that this lead to Korea coming top in PISA Digital Literacy tests in June 2011 – however computer use is often restricted to teachers presenting information to students.

The real reason Korean students do so well in Digital Literacy is the intense use of technology after school – in Internet cafes, “cram schools” and the home where children can use the world’s fastest home Internet connections – on average 100 Mbps now, and with plans to increase this to 1 Gbps.

Several government initiatives have been set up to bridge the gap between the different levels of effectiveness of learning at home and at school. The overall goal of Government ICT initiatives is to ensure that by 2014 Korean school children will be competent with 21st century skills and are talented at innovating with future digital technology.

Much of the government’s initiative in ICT is channelled through KERIS – a Government Research Institute that acts as the country’s national ICT/education agency. KERIS’ Future Schools programme has conducted 39 research projects and 14 development projects focussed on new learning methods based on new technology. 

Infrastructure Development

The current priority from a budget standpoint is the acquisition of hardware and modernising class facilities. By 2010 there was a ratio of 5 students per PC – the intent of this investment was to support the development of creativity and problem-solving.

IT Expenditure Priorities

A second budget priority is to increase the number of classrooms that have been transformed to achieve “ubiquitous-learning” (u-learning).

Digital Textbook Project

KERIS has been piloting ‘digital textbooks’ in various forms in preparation for the move by 2015 to using digital textbooks in all schools in all subjects at all levels. The idea is that digital textbooks will be accessed/viewed on many different types of devices, from tablets to desktops to laptops to phones.

Cyber Home Learning System

In an attempt to reduce the cost of private education KERIS also developed content for the Cyber Home Learning System. Launched in 2004, CHLS is an online learning service supporting student’s self-directed learning. Click here to find out more – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CF8XdvA4ajk

Cyber Home Learning System

The next generation of the CHLS will include community, e-portfolio and analytical functions.

Next Generation of CHLS

EDUNET

KERIS set up and operates EDUNET, an educational information service which distributes a diverse range of high quality educational content. Content ranges from sound, photo, image, animation, module and video and is all specified by curriculum. As of October, 2010, the number of EDUNET users reached 6.17 million out of a school student population of 7.7m. To see a sample of the content, view a short video here. 

Education Broadcasting Services on the Internet (EBSi)

A service that has seen a sharp rise in growth recently is EBSi. This is where key education broadcasting service assets are made available for download. In 2010, daily usage of video-clips of lectures was 574,461, a 78% increase from the same period of the previous year.  

Teacher Training

Advances have been made too in teacher training. Not only are increasing numbers of teachers licenced to teach ICT, distance education training based on e-Learning has become the core method of teachers training. Distance learning is available to students too via “Air and Correspondence High School”.

NEIS (National Education Information Service)

The Korean Government is keen to develop the use of data systems in education. In a drive to reduce teacher workload, an administration system called NEIS (National Education Information Service) was developed. By streamlining procedures, many administrative processes can now be done in one-step. The system connects all stakeholders of the student, to allow them to get “to Know Our Children Better”. NEIS integrates student records across a range of fields including assessments, examination and health data.

The first task in creating NEIS was to develop the physical infrastructure. The aging facilities of the overall education management centre and 16 Metropolitan and municipal education offices were replaced. 3,800 servers with databases were installed in schools and integrated into a datacentre comprising 100 servers in upstream education offices.

To help teachers adapt, training is provided, and structured guides are available on the teacher area of Edunet.

 

(MPOE – Metropolitan and Provincial Offices of Education)

(MEST – Ministry of Education, Science and Technology)

After infrastructure, the next key ingredient was Business Process Reengineering and Information Strategy Planning (BPR/ISP) for constructing the business management system for the MPOEs. A transmission system for electronic funds transfer (EFT) system was created at the Korea Financial Telecommunications and Clearings Institute.

The School Information Disclosure System allows anyone including students and parents to easily receive information about schools. The system is designed to increases parents and the local community’s interest and participation in the schooling system. In addition, the government and the Offices of Education are expected to boost policy achievements by establishing even more efficient policies through situational reality analysis of school units using the School Information Disclosure System.

Where next?

Whilst Korea is developing one of the best IT infrastructures in the world, there are three key areas that need focus:

  • According to “Adapting Education to the Information Age”, Software Infrastructure in Korea is behind to developed countries and a change is required to develop capacity in this area.
  • A second area for development is lifelong learning. 28% of adults participated in the lifelong learning in 2009, which is lower than major advanced countries – eg EU average participation rate is 37.9%.
  • Perhaps the most important area of focus is 21st century skills. Korea has few programs in this area, and with Communication and Collaboration now part of the PISA 2012 framework, this area is in need of development.

To learn more:

Excellent blog article by Michael Trucano with links to in-depth resources: http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/e-learning-in-korea-in-2011-and-beyond

Learning Environment Design

Courtsey of Eltham College, Victoria

A couple of weeks ago in Brazil I gave a short talk on learning environment design based on the Physical Spaces section of Schooling at the Speed of Thought. Three key documents on this subject contain some great ideas and examples: 21St Century Learning OECD 2006; architecture_visits (8i); Building Learning Futures